translated by Kashinath Trimbak Telang, M.A.
~ Chapter 1 ~
1:1. What did my (people) and the
Pandavas do, O Sangaya! when they assembled together on the holy
field of Kurukshetra, desirous to do battle?
1:2. Seeing the army of the
Pandavas drawn up in battle-array, the prince Duryodhana
approached his preceptor, and spoke (these) words:
1:3. `O preceptor! observe this
grand army of the sons of Pandu, drawn up in battle-array by your
talented pupil, the son of Drupada.
1:4. In it are heroes (bearing)
large bows, the equals of Bhima and Arguna in battle -- (namely),
Yuyudhana, Virata, and Drupada, the master of a great car, and
1:5. Dhrishtaketu, Kekitana, and
the valiant king of Kasi, Purugit and Kuntibhoga, and that eminent
1:6. the heroic Yudhamanyu, the
valiant Uttamaugas, the son of Subhadra, and the sons of Draupadi
-- all masters of great cars.
1:7. And now, O best of Brahmanas!
learn who are most distinguished among us, and are leaders of my
army. I will name them to you, in order that you may know them
1:8. Yourself, and Bhishma, and
Karna, and Kripa the victor of (many) battles; Asvatthaman, and
Vikarna, and also the son of Somadatta,
1:9. and many other brave men, who
have given up their lives for me, who fight with various weapons,
(and are) all dexterous in battle.
1:10. Thus our army which is
protected by Bhishma is unlimited; while this army of theirs which
is protected by Bhima is very limited.
1:11. And therefore do ye all,
occupying respectively the positions I assigned to you, protect
1:12. Then his powerful grandsire,
Bhishma, the oldest of the Kauravas, roaring aloud like a lion,
blew his conch, (thereby) affording delight to Duryodhana.
1:13. And then all at once,
conchs, and kettledrums, and tabors, and trumpets were played
upon; and there was a tumultuous din.
1:14. Then, too, Madhava and the
son of Pandu (Arguna), seated in a grand chariot to which white
steeds were yoked, blew their heavenly conchs.
1:15. Hrishikesa blew the
Pankaganya, and Dhanangaya the Devadatta, and Bhima, (the doer) of
fearful deeds, blew the great conch Paundra.
1:16. King Yudhishthira, the son
of Kunti, blew the Anantavigaya and Nakula and Sahadeva
(respectively) the Sughosha and Manipushpaka.
1:17. And the king of Kasi, too,
who has an excellent bow, and Sikhandin, the master of a great
car, and Dhrishtadyumna, Virata, and the unconquered Satyaki, and
1:18. Drupada, and the sons of
Draupadi, and the son of Subhadra, of mighty arms, blew conchs
severally from all sides, O king of the earth!
1:19. That tumultuous din rent the
hearts of all (the people) of Dhritarashtra's (party), causing
reverberations throughout heaven and earth.
1:20. Then seeing (the people of)
Dhritarashtra's party regularly marshalled, the son of Pandu,
whose standard is the ape, raised his bow, after the discharge of
missiles had commenced, and O king of the earth! spake these words
1:21. `O undegraded one! station
my chariot between the two armies,
1:22. while I observe those, who
stand here desirous to engage in battle, and with whom, in the
labours of this struggle, I must do battle.
1:23. I will observe those who are
assembled here and who are about to engage in battle, wishing to
do service in battle to the evil-minded son of Dhritarashtra.'
1:24. Thus addressed by Gudakesa,
O descendant of Bharata! Hrishikesa stationed that excellent
chariot between the two armies, in front of Bhishma and Drona and
of all the kings of the earth,
1:25. and said: `O son of Pritha!
look at these assembled Kauravas.'
1:26. There the son of Pritha saw
in both armies, fathers and grandfathers, preceptors, maternal
uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, companions, fathers-in-law, as
well as friends.
1:27. And seeing all those kinsmen
standing (there), the son of Kunti was overcome by excessive pity,
and spake thus despondingly.
1:28. Seeing these kinsmen, O
Krishna! standing (here) anxious to engage in battle, my limbs
1:29. my mouth is quite dried up;
a tremor comes over my body; and my hairs stand on end; the
Gandiva (bow) slips from my hand; my skin burns intensely.
1:30. I am unable, too, to stand
up; my mind whirls round, as it were; O Kesava! I see adverse
1:31. and I do not perceive any
good (likely to accrue) after killing (my) kinsmen in the battle.
I do not wish for victory, O Krishna! nor sovereignty, nor
1:32. what is sovereignty to us, O
Govinda! what enjoyments, and even life?
1:33. Even those, for whose sake
we desire sovereignty, enjoyments, and pleasures, are standing
here for battle, abandoning life and wealth-preceptors, fathers,
sons as well as grandfathers,
1:34. maternal uncles,
fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, as also (other)
relatives. These I do not wish to kill, though they kill (me), O
destroyer of Madhu! even for the sake of sovereignty over the
three worlds, how much less then for this earth (alone)?
1:35. What joy shall be ours, O
Ganardana! after killing Dhritarishtra's sons?
1:36. Killing these felons we
shall only incur sin. Therefore it is not proper for us to kill
our own kinsmen, the sons of Dhritarashtra. For how, O Madhava!
shall we be happy after killing our own relatives?
1:37. Although they have their
consciences corrupted by avarice, they do not see the evils
flowing from the extinction of a family, and the sin in treachery
1:38. still, O Ganardana! should
not we, who do see the evils flowing from the extinction of a
family, learn to refrain from that sin?
1:39. On the extinction of a
family, the eternal rites of families are destroyed. Those rites
being destroyed, impiety predominates over the whole family.
1:40. In consequence of the
predominance of impiety, O Krishna! the women of the family become
corrupt; and the women becoming corrupt, O descendant of Vrishni!
intermingling of castes results;
1:41. that intermingling
necessarily leads the family and the destroyers of the family to
hell; for when the ceremonies of (offering) the balls of food and
water (to them) fail, their ancestors fall down (to hell).
1:42. By these transgressions of
the destroyers of families, which occasion interminglings of
castes, the eternal rites of castes and rites of families are
1:43. And O Ganardana! we have
heard that men whose family-rites are subverted, must necessarily
live in hell.
1:44. Alas! we are engaged in
committing a heinous sin, seeing that we are making efforts for
killing our own kinsmen out of greed of the pleasures of
1:45. If the sons of
Dhritarashtra, weapon in hand, were to kill me in battle, me being
weaponless and not defending (myself), that would be better for
1:46. Having spoken thus, Arguna
cast asde his bow together with the arrows, on the battle-field,
and sat down in (his) chariot, with a mind agitated by grief.
~ Chapter 2 ~
2:1. To him, who was thus overcome
with pity, and dejected, and whose eyes were full of tears and
turbid, the destroyer of Madhu spoke these words.
The Deity said:
2:2. How (comes it that) this
delusion, O Arguna! which is discarded by the good, which excludes
from heaven, and occasions infamy, has overtaken you in this
(place of) peril?
2:3. Be not effeminate, O son of
Pritha! it is not worthy of you. Cast off this base weakness of
heart, and arise, O terror of (your) foes!
2:4. How, O destroyer of Madhu!
shall I encounter with arrows in battle Bhisma and Drona -- both,
O destroyer of enemies! entitled to reverence?
2:5. Without killing (my)
preceptors -- (men) of great glory -- it is better to live even on
alms in this world. But if killing them, though that are
avaricious of worldly goods, I should only enjoy blood-tainted
2:6. Nor do we know which of the
two is better for us -- whether that we should vanquish them, or
that they should vanquish us. Even those, whom having killed, we
do not wish to live -- even thse sons of Dhritarashtra stand
(arrayed) against us.
2:7. With a heart contaminated by
the taint of helplessness, with a mind confounded about my duty, I
ask you. Tell me what is assuredly good for me. I am your
disciple: instruct me, who have thrown myself on your
2:8. For I do not perceive what is
to dispel that grief which will dry up my organs after I shall
have obtained a properous kingdom on earth without a foe, or even
the sovereignty of the gods.
2:9. Having spoken thus to
Hrishikesa, O terror of (your) foes! Gudakesa said to Govinda, `I
shall not engage in battle;' and verily remain silent.
2:10. To him thus desponding
between two armies, O descedant of Bharata! Hrishikesa spoke these
words with a slight smile.
The Deity said:
2:11. You have grieved for those
who deserve no grief, and you speak words of wisdom. Learned men
grieve not for the living nor the dead.
2:12. Never did I not exist, nor
you, nor these rulers of men; nor will any one of us ever
hereafter cease to be.
2:13. As in this body, infancy and
youth and old age (come) to the embodied (self), so does the
acquisition of another body; a sensible man is not deceived about
2:14. The contacts of the senses,
O son of Kunti! which produce cold and heat, pleasure and pain,
are not permanent, they are for ever coming and going. Bear them,
O descendant of Bharata!
2:15. For, O chief of men! that
sensible man whom they afflict not, (pain and pleasure being alike
to him), he merits immortality.
2:16. There is no existence for
that which is unreal; there is no non-existence for that which is
real. And the (correct) conclusion about both is perceived by
those who perceive the truth.
2:17. Know that to be
indestructible which pervades all this; the destruction of that
inexhaustible (principle) none can bring about.
2:18. These bodies appertaining to
the embodied (self) which is eternal, indestructible, and
indefinable, are declared to be perishable; therefore do engage in
battle, O descendant of Bharata!
2:19. He who thinks one to be the
killer and he who thinks one to be killed, both know nothing. He
kills not, is not killed.
2:20. He is not born, nor does he
ever die, nor, having existed, does he exist no more.
2:21. Unborn, everlasting,
unchangeable, and very ancient, he is not killed when the body is
killed. O son of Pritha! how can that man who knows the self thus
to be indestructible, everlasting, unborn, and imperishable, kill
any one, or cause any one to be killed?
2:22. As a man, casting off old
clothes, puts on others and new ones, so the embodied (self),
casting off old bodies, goes to others and new ones.
2:23. Weapons do not divide the
self (into pieces); fire does not burn it; waters do not moisten
it; the wind does not dry it up.
2:24. It is not divisible; it is
not combustible; it is not to be moistened; it is not to be dried
up. It is everlasting, all-pervading, stable, firm, and eternal.
It is said to be unperceived, to be unthinkable, to be
2:25. Therefore knowing it to be
such, you ought not to grieve.
2:26. But even if you think that
the self is constantly born, and constantly dies, still, O you of
mighty arms! you ought not to grieve thus.
2:27. For to one that is born,
death is certain; and to one that dies, birth is certain.
Therefore about (this) unavoidable thing, you ought not to grieve.
2:28. The source of things, O
descendant of Bharata! is unperceived; their middle state is
perceived; and their end again is unperceived. What (occasion is
there for any) lamentation regarding them?
2:29. One looks upon it as a
wonder; another similarly speaks of it as a wonder; another too
hears of it as a wonder; and even after having heard of it, no one
does really know it.
2:30. This embodied (self), O
descendant of Bharata! within every one's body is ever
indestructible. Therefore you ought not to grieve for any being.
2:31. Having regard to your own
duty also, you ought not to falter, for there is nothing better
for a Kshatriya than a righteous battle.
2:32. Happy those Kshatriyas, O
son of Pritha! who can find such a battle (to fight) -- come of
itself -- an open door to heaven!
2:33. But if you will not fight
this righteous battle, then you will have abandoned your own duty
and your fame, and you will incur sin.
2:34. All beings, too, will tell
of your everlasting infamy; and to one who has been honoured,
infamy is (a) greater (evil) than death.
2:35. (Warriors who are) masters
of great cars will think that you abstained from the battle
through fear, and having been highly thought of by them, you will
fall down to littleness.
2:36. Your enemies, too, decrying
your power, will speak much about you that should not be spoken.
And what, indeed, more lamentable than that?
2:37. Killed, you will obtain
heaven; victorious, you will enjoy the earth. Therefore arise, O
son of Kunti! resolved to (engage in) battle.
2:38. Looking on pleasure and
pain, on gain and loss, on victory and defeat as the same, prepare
for battle, and thus you will not incur sin.
2:39. The knowledge here declared
to you is that relating to the Sankhya. Now hear that relating to
the Yoga. Possessed of this knowledge, O son of Pritha! you will
cast off the bonds of action.
2:40. In this (path to final
emancipation) nothing that is commenced becomes abortive; no
obstacles exist; and even a little of this (form of) piety
protects one from great danger.
2:41. There is here O descendant
of Kuru! but one state of mind consisting in firm understanding.
But the states of mind of those who have no firm understanding are
manifold and endless.
2:42. The state of mind which
consists in firm understanding regarding steady contemplation does
not belong to those; O son of Pritha! who are strongly attached to
(worldly) pleasures and power, and whose minds are drawn away by
that flowery talk which is full of (the ordinances of)
2:43. specific acts for the
attainment of (those) pleasures and (that) power, and which
promises birth as the fruit of acts -- (that flowery talk) which
those unwise ones utter,
2:44. who are enamoured of Vedic
words, who say there is nothing, else, who are full of desires,
and whose goal is heaven.
2:45. The Vedas (merely) relate to
the effects of the three qualities; do you, O Arguna! rise above
those effects of the three qualities, and be free from the pairs
of opposites, always preserve courage, be free from anxiety for
new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions, and be
2:46. To the instructed Brahmana,
there is in all the Vedas as much utility as in a reservoir of
water into which waters flow from all sides.
2:47. Your business is with action
alone; not by any means with fruit. Let not the fruit of action be
your motive (to action). Let not your attachment be (fixed) on
2:48. Having recourse to devotion,
O Dhanangaya! perform actions, casting off (all) attachment, and
being equable in success or ill-success; (such) equability is
2:49. Action, O Dhanangaya! is far
inferior to the devotion of the mind.
2:50. In that devotion seek
shelter. Wretched are those whose motive (to action) is the fruit
(of action). He who has obtained devotion in this world casts off
both merit and sin. Therefore apply yourself to devotion; devotion
in (all) actions is wisdom.
2:51. The wise who have obtained
devotion cast off the fruit of action; and released from the
shackles of (repeated) births, repair to that seat where there is
2:52. When your mind shall have
crossed beyond the taint of delusion, then will you become
indifferent to all that you have heard or will hear.
2:53. When your mind, that was
confounded by what you have heard, will stand firm and steady in
contemplation, then will you acquire devotion.
2:54. What are the
characteristics, O Kesava! of one whose mind is steady, and who is
intent on contemplation? How should one of a steady mind speak,
how sit, how move?
The Deity said:
2:55. When a man, O son of Pritha!
abandons all the desires of his heart, and is pleased in his self
only and by his self, he is then called of a steady mind.
2:56. He whose heart is not
agitated in the midst of calamities, who has no longing for
pleasures, and from whom (the feelings of) affection, fear, and
wrath have departed, is called a sage of a steady mind.
2:57. His mind is steady, who,
being without attachments anywhere, feels no exultation and no
aversion on encountering, the various agreeable and disagreeable
(things of this world).
2:58. A man's mind is steady, when
he withdraws his senses from (all) objects of sense, as the
tortoise (withdraws) its limbs from all sides.
2:59. Objects of sense withdraw
themselves from a person who is abstinent; not so the taste (for
those objects). But even the taste departs from him, when he has
seen the Supreme.
2:60. The boisterous senses, O son
of Kunti! carry away by force the mind even of a wise man, who
exerts himself (for final emancipation).
2:61. Restraining them, all, a man
should remain engaged in devotion, making me his only resort. For
his mind is steady whose senses are under his control.
2:62. The man who ponders over
objects of sense forms an attachment to them; from (that)
attachment is produced desire; and from desire anger is produced;
2:63. from anger results want of
discrimination; from want of discrimination, confusion of the
memory; from confusion of the memory, loss of reason; and in
consequence of loss of reason he is utterly ruined.integrity
2:64. But the self-restrained man
who moves among objects with senses under the control of his own
self, and free from affection and aversion, obtains
2:65. When there is tranquillity,
all his miseries are destroyed, for the mind of him whose heart is
tranquil soon becomes steady.
2:66. He who is not
self-restrained has no steadiness of mind; nor has he who is not
self-restrained perseverance in the pursuit of self-knowledge;
2:66. there is no tranquillity for
him who does not persevere in the pursuit of self-knowledge; and
whence can there be happiness for one who is not tranquil?
2:67. For the heart which follows
the rambling senses leads away his judgment, as the wind leads a
boat astray upon the waters.
2:68. Therefore, O you of mighty
arms! his mind is steady whose senses are restrained on all sides
from objects of sense.
2:69. The self-restrained man is
awake, when it is night for all beings; and when all beings are
awake, that is the night of the right-seeing, sage.
2:70. He into whom all objects of
desire enter, as waters enter the ocean, which, (though)
replenished, (still) keeps its position unmoved, -- he only
obtains tranquillity; not he who desires (those) objects of
2:71. The man who, casting off all
desires, lives free from attachments, who is free from egoism, and
from (the feeling that this or that is) mine, obtains
2:72. This, O son of Pritha! is
the Brahmic state; attaining to this, one is never deluded; and
remaining in it in (one's) last moments, one attains
(brahma-nirvana) the Brahmic bliss.
~ Chapter 2 ~
3:1. If, O Ganardana! devotion is
deemed by you to be superior to action, then why, O Kesava! do you
prompt me to (this) fearful action?
3:2. You seem, indeed, to confuse
my mind by equivocal words. Therefore, declare one thing
determinately, by which I may attain the highest good.
The Deity said:
3:3. O sinless one! I have already
declared, that in this world there is a twofold path -- that of
the Sankhyas by devotion in the shape of (true) knowledge; and
that of the Yogins by devotion in the shape of action.
3:4. A man does not attain freedom
from action, merely by not engaging in action; nor does he attain
perfection by mere renunciation.
3:5. For nobody ever remains even
for an instant without performing some action; since the qualities
of nature constrain everybody, not having free-will (in the
matter), to some action.
3:6. The deluded man who
restraining the organs of action, continues to think in his mind
about objects of sense, is called a hypocrite.
3:7. But he, O Arguna! who
restraining his senses by his mind, and being free from
attachments, engages in devotion (in the shape) of action, with
the organs of action, is far superior.
3:8. Do you perform prescribed
action, for action is better than inaction, and the support of
your body, too, cannot be accomplished with inaction.
3:9. This world is fettered by all
action other than action for the purpose of the sacrifice.
Therefore, O son of Kunti! do you, casting off attachment, perform
action for that purpose.
3:10. The Creator, having in olden
times created men together with the sacrifice, said `Propagate
with this. May it be the giver to you of the things you desire.
3:11. Please the gods with this,
and may those gods please you. Pleasing each other, you will
attain the highest good.
3:12. For pleased with the
sacrifices, the gods will give you the enjoyments you desire. And
he who enjoys himself without giving them what they have given,
is, indeed, a thief.'
3:13. The good, who eat the
leavings of a sacrifice, are released from all sins. But the
unrighteous ones, who prepare food for themselves only, incur sin.
3:14. From food are born (all)
creatures; from rain is the production of food; rain is produced
by sacrifices; sacrifices are the result of action;
3:15. know that action has its
source in the Vedas; the Vedas come from the Indestructible.
Therefore the all-comprehending Vedas are always concerned with
3:16. He who in this world does
not turn round the wheel revolving thus, is of sinful life,
indulging his senses, and, O son of Pritha! lie lives in vain.
3:17. But the man who is attached
to his self only, who is contented in his self, and is pleased
with his self, has nothing to do.
3:18. He has no interest at all in
what is done, and none whatever in what is not done, in this
world; nor is any interest of his dependent on any being.
3:19. Therefore always perform
action, which must be performed, without attachment. For a man,
performing action without attachment, attains the Supreme.
3:20. By action alone, did Ganaka
and the rest work for perfection. And having regard also to the
keeping of people (to their duties) you should perform action.
3:21. Whatever a great man does,
that other men also do. And people follow whatever he receives as
3:22. There is nothing, O son of
Pritha! for me to do in (all) the three worlds, nothing to acquire
which has not been acquired. Still I do engage in action.
3:23. For should I at any time not
engage without sloth in action, men would follow in my path from
all sides, O son of Pritha!
3:24. If I did not perform
actions, these worlds would be destroyed, I should be the cause of
caste-interminglings; and I should be ruining these people.
3:25. As the ignorant act, O
descendant of Bharata! with attachment to action, so should a wise
man act without attachment, wishing to keep the people (to their
3:26. A wise man should not shake
the convictions of the ignorant who are attached to action, but
acting with devotion (himself) should make them apply themselves
to all action.
3:27. He whose mind is deluded by
egoism thinks himself the doer of the actions, which, in every
way, are done by the qualities of nature.
3:28. But he, O you of mighty
arms! who knows the truth about the difference from qualities and
the difference from actions, forms no attachments, believing that
qualities deal with qualities.
3:29. But those who are deluded by
the qualities of nature form attachments to the actions of the
qualities. A man of perfect knowledge should not shake these men
of imperfect knowledge (in their convictions).
3:30. Dedicating all actions to me
with a mind knowing the relation of the supreme and individual
self, engage in battle without desire, without (any feeling that
this or that is) mine, and without any mental trouble.
3:31. Even those men who always
act on this opinion of mine, full of faith, and without carping,
are released from all actions.
3:32. But those who carp at my
opinion and do not act upon it, know them -- to be devoid of
discrimination, deluded as regards all knowledge, and ruined.
3:33. Even a man of knowledge acts
consonantly to his own nature. All beings follow nature. What will
3:34. Every sense has its
affections and aversions towards its-objects fixed. One should not
become subject to them, for they are one's opponents.
3:35. One's own duty, though
defective, is better than another's duty well performed. Death in
(performing) one's own duty is preferable ; the (performance of
the) duty of others is dangerous.
3:36. But by whom, O descendant of
Vrishni! is man impelled, even though unwilling and, as it were,
constrained by force, to commit sin?
The Deity said:
3:37. It is desire, it is wrath,
born from the quality of passion; it is very ravenous, very
sinful. Know that that is the foe in this world.
3:38. As fire is enveloped by
smoke, a mirror by dust, the foetus by the womb, so is this
enveloped by desire.
3:39. Knowledge, O son of Kunti!
is enveloped by this constant foe of the man of knowledge, in the
shape of desire, which is like a fire and insatiable.
3:40. The senses, the mind, and
the understanding are said to be its seat; with these it deludes
the embodied (self) after enveloping knowledge.
3:41. Therefore `O chief of the
descendants of Bharata! first restrain your senses, then cast off
this sinful thing which destroys knowledge and experience.
3:42. It has been said, Great are
the senses, greater than the senses is the mind, greater than the
mind is the understanding. What is greater than the understanding
3:43. Thus knowing that which is
higher than the understanding, and restraining (your)self by
(your)self, O you of mighty arms! destroy this unmanageable enemy
in the shape of desire.
~ Chapter 4 ~
The Deity said:
4:1. This everlasting (system of)
devotion I declared to the sun, the sun declared it to Manu, and
Manu communicated it to Ikshvaku.
4:2. Coming thus by steps, it
became known to royal sages. But, O terror of (your) foes! that
devotion was lost to the world by long (lapse of) time.
4:3. That same primeval devotion I
have declared to you to-day, seeing that you are my devotee and
friend, for it is the highest mystery.
4:4. Later is your birth; the
birth of the sun is prior. How then shall I understand that you
declared (this) first?
The Deity said:
4:5. I have passed through many
births, O Arguna! and you also. I know them all, but you, O terror
of (your) foes! do not know them.
4:6. Even though I am unborn and
inexhaustible in (my) essence, even though I am lord of all
beings, still I take up the control of my own nature, and am born
by means of my delusive power.
4:7. Whensoever, O descendant of
Bharata! piety languishes, and impiety is in the ascendant, I
4:8. I am born age after age, for
the protection of the good, for the destruction of evil-doers, and
the establishment of piety.
4:9. Whoever truly knows thus my
divine birth and work, casts off (this) body and is not born
again. He comes to me, O Arguna!
4:10. Many from, whom affection,
fear, and wrath have departed, who are full of me, who depend on
me, and who are purified by the penance of knowledge, have come
into my essence.
4:11. I serve men in the way in
which they approach me. In every way, O son of Pritha! men follow
in my path.
4:12. Desiring the success of
actions, men in this world worship the divinities, for in this
world of mortals, the success produced by action is soon obtained.
4:13. The fourfold division of
castes was created by me according to the apportionment of
qualities and duties. But though I am its author, know me to be
inexhaustible, and not the author.
4:14. Actions defile me not. I
have no attachment to the fruit of actions. He who knows me thus
is not tied down by actions.
4:15. Knowing this, the men of old
who wished for final emancipation, performed action. Therefore do
you, too, perform action as was done by men of old in olden times.
4:16. Even sages are confused as
to what is action, what inaction. Therefore I will speak to you
about action, and learning that, you will be freed from (this
world of) evil.
4:17. One must possess knowledge
about action; one must also possess knowledge about prohibited
action; and again one must possess knowledge about inaction. The
truth regarding action is abstruse.
4:18. He is wise among men, he is
possessed of devotion, and performs all actions, who sees inaction
in action, and action in inaction.
4:19. The wise call him learned,
whose acts are all free from desires and fancies, and whose
actions are burnt down by the fire of knowledge.
4:20. Forsaking all attachment to
the fruit of action, always contented, dependent on none, he does
nothing at all, though he engages in action.
4:21. Devoid of expectations,
restraining the mind and the self, and casting off all belongings,
he incurs no sin, performing actions merely for the sake of the
4:22. Satisfied with earnings
coming spontaneously, rising above the pairs of opposites, free
from all animosity, and equable on success or ill-success, he is
not fettered down, even though he performs (actions).
4:23. The acts of one who is
devoid of attachment, who is free, whose mind is fixed on
knowledge, and who performs action for (the purpose of) the
sacrifice are all destroyed.
4:24. Brahman is the oblation;
with Brahman (as a sacrificial instrument) it is offered up;
Brahman is in the fire; and by Brahman it is thrown; and Brahman,
too, is the goal to which he proceeds who meditates on Brahman in
4:25. Some devotees perform the
sacrifice to the gods, some offer up the sacrifice by the
sacrifice itself in the fire of Brahman.
4:26. Others offer up the senses,
such as the sense of hearing and others, in the fires of
restraint; others offer up the objects of sense, such as sound and
so forth, into the fires of the senses.
4:27. Some again offer up all the
operations of the senses and the operations of the life-breaths
into the fire of devotion by self-restraint, kindled by knowledge.
4:28. Others perform the sacrifice
of wealth, the sacrifice of penance, the sacrifice of
concentration of mind, the sacrifice of Vedic study, and of
knowledge, and others are ascetics of rigid vows.
4:29. Some offer up the upward
life-breath into the downward life-breath, and the downward
life-breath into the upper life-breath, and stopping up the
motions of the upward and downward life-breaths, devote themselves
to the restraint of the life-breaths. Others, who (take) limited
food, offer up the life-breaths into the life-breaths.
4:30. All of these, conversant
with the sacrifice, have their sins destroyed by the sacrifice.
Those who eat the nectar-like leavings of the sacrifice repair to
the eternal Brahman.
4:31. This world is not for those
who perform no sacrifice, whence (then) the other, O best of the
4:32. Thus sacrifices of various
sorts are laid down in the Vedas. Know them all to be produced
from action, and knowing this you will be released (from the
fetters of this world).
4:33. The sacrifice of knowledge,
O terror of (your) foes! is superior to the sacrifice of wealth,
for action, O son of Pritha! is wholly and entirely comprehended
4:34. That you should learn by
salutation, question, and service. The men of knowledge who
perceive the truth will teach knowledge to you.
4:35. Having learnt that, O son of
Pandu! you will not again fall thus into delusion; and by means of
it, you will see all beings, without exception, first in yourself,
and then in me.
4:36. Even if you are the most
sinful of all sinful men, you will cross over all trespasses by
means of the boat of knowledge alone.
4:37. As a fire well kindled, O
Arguna! reduces fuel to ashes, so the fire of knowledge reduces
all actions to ashes.
4:38. For there is in this world
no means of sanctification like knowledge, and that one perfected
by devotion finds within one's self in time.
4:39. He who has faith, whose
senses are restrained, and who is assiduous, obtains knowledge.
Obtaining knowledge, he acquires, without delay, the highest
4:40. He who is ignorant and
devoid of faith, and whose self is full of misgivings, is ruined.
Not this world, not the next, nor happiness, is for him whose self
is full of misgivings.
4:41. Actions, O Dhanangaya! do
not fetter one who is self-possessed, who has renounced action by
devotion, and who has destroyed misgivings by knowledge.
4:42. Therefore, O descendant of
Bharata! destroy, with the sword of knowledge, these misgivings of
yours which fill your mind, and which are produced from ignorance.
Engage in devotion. Arise!
~ Chapter 5 ~
5:1. O Krishna! you praise
renunciation of actions and also the pursuit (of them). Tell me
determinately which one of these two is superior.
The Deity said:
5:2. Renunciation and pursuit of
action are both instruments of happiness. But of the two, pursuit
of action is superior to renunciation of action.
5:3. He should be understood to be
always an ascetic, who has no aversion and no desire. For, O you
of mighty arms! he who is free from the pairs of opposites is
easily released from (all) bonds.
5:4. Children -- not wise men --
talk of sankhya and yoga as distinct. One who pursues either well
obtains the fruit of both.
5:5. The seat which the sankhyas
obtain is reached by the yogas also. He sees (truly), who sees the
sankhya and yoga as one.
5:6. Renunciation, O you of mighty
arms! is difficult to reach without devotion; the sage possessed
of devotion attains Brahman without delay.
5:7. He who is possessed of
devotion, whose self is pure, who has restrained his self, and who
has controlled his senses, and who identifies his self with every
being, is not tainted though he performs (actions).
5:8. The man of devotion, who
knows the truth, thinks he does nothing at all, when he sees,
hears, touches, smells, eats, moves, sleeps, breathes,
5:9. talks, throws out, takes,
opens or closes the eyelids; he holds that the senses deal with
the objects of the senses.
5:10. He who, casting off (all)
attachment, performs actions dedicating them to Brahman, is not
tainted by sin, as the lotus-leaf (is not tainted) by water.
5:11. Devotees, casting off
attachment, perform actions for attaining purity of self, with the
body, the mind, the understandincy, or even the senses -- (all)
free (from egoistic notions).
5:12. He who is possessed of
devotion, abandoning the fruit of actions, attains the highest
tranquillity. He who is without devotion, and attached to the
fruit (of action), is tied down by (reason of his) acting in
consequence of (some) desire.
5:13. The self-restrained,
embodied (self) lies at ease within the city of nine portals,
renouncing all actions by the mind, not doing, nor causing
(anything) to be done.
5:14. The Lord is not, the cause
of actions, or of the capacity of performing actions amongst men,
or of the connexion of action and fruit. But nature only works.
5:15. The Lord receives no one's
sin, nor merit either. Knowledge is enveloped by ignorance, hence
all creatures are deluded.
5:16. But to those who have
destroyed that ignorance by knowledge of the self, (such)
knowledge, like the sun, shows forth that supreme (principle).
5:17. And those whose mind is
(centred) on it, whose (very) self it is, who are thoroughly
devoted to it, and whose final goal it is, go never to return,
having their sins destroyed by knowledge.
5:18. The wise look upon a
Brahmana possessed of learning and humility, on a cow, an
elephant, a dog, and a Svapaka, as alike.
5:19. Even here, those have
conquered the material world, whose mind rests in equability;
since Brahman is free from defects and equable, therefore they
rest in Brahman.
5:20. He who knows Brahman, whose
mind is steady, who is not deluded, and who rests in Brahman, does
not exult on finding anything agreeable, nor does he grieve on
finding anything disagreeable.
5:21. One whose self is not
attached to external objects, obtains the happiness that is in
(one's) self; and by means of concentration of mind, joining one's
self (with the Brahman), one obtains indestructible happiness.
5:22. For the enjoyments born of
contact (between senses and their objects) are, indeed, sources of
misery; they have a beginning as well as an end. O son of Kunti! a
wise man feels no pleasure in them.
5:23. He who even in this world,
before his release from the body, is able to bear the agitations
produced from desire and wrath, is a devoted man, he is a happy
5:24. The devotee whose happiness
is within (himself), whose recreation is within (himself), and
whose light (of knowledge) also is within (himself), becoming (one
with) the Brahman, obtains the Brahmic bliss.
5:25. The sages whose sins have
perished, whose misgivings are destroyed, who are self-restrained,
and who are intent on the welfare of all beings, obtain the
5:26. To the ascetics, who are
free from desire and wrath, and whose minds are restrained, and
who have knowledge of the self, the Brahmic bliss is on both sides
5:27. The sage who excludes (from
his mind) external objects, (concentrates) the visual power
between the brows, and making the upward and downward life-breaths
even, confines their movements within the nose,
5:28. who restrains senses, mind,
and understanding, whose highest goal is final emancipation, from
whom desire, fear, and wrath have departed, is, indeed, for ever
released (from birth and death).
5:29. He knowing me to be the
enjoyer of all sacrifices and penances, the great Lord of all
worlds, and the friend of all beings, attains tranquillity.
~ Chapter 6 ~
The Deity said:
6:1. He who, regardless of the
fruit of actions, performs the actions which ought to be
performed, is the devotee and renouncer; not he who discards the
(sacred) fires, nor he who performs no acts.
6:2. Know, O son of Pandu! that
what is called renunciation is devotion; for nobody becomes a
devotee who has not renounced (all) fancies.
6:3. To the sage who wishes to
rise to devotion, action is said to be a means, and to him, when
be has risen to devotion, tranquillity is said to be a means.
6:4. When one does not attach
oneself to objects of sense, nor to action, renouncing all
fancies, then one is said to have risen to devotion.
6:5. (A man) should elevate his
self by his self; he should not debase his self, for even (a
man's) own self is his friend, (a man's) own self is also his
6:6. To him who has subjugated his
self by his self, his self is a friend; but to him who has not
restrained his self, his own self behaves inimically, like an
6:7. The self of one who has
subjugated his self and is tranquil, is absolutely concentrated
(on itself), in the midst of cold and heat, pleasure and pain, as
well as honour and dishonour.
6:8. The devotee whose self is
contented with knowledge and experience, who is unmoved, who has
restrained his senses, and to whom a sod, a stone, and gold are
alike, is said to be devoted.
6:9. And he is esteemed highest,
who thinks alike about well-wishers, friends, and enemies, and
those who are indifferent, and those who take part with both
sides, and those who are objects of hatred, and relatives, as well
as about the good and the sinful.
6:10. A devotee should constantly
devote his self to abstraction, remaining in a secret place,
alone, with his mind and self restrained, without expectations,
and without belongings.
6:11. Fixing his seat firmly in a
clean place, not too high nor too low, and covered over with a
sheet of cloth, a deerskin, and (blades of) Kusa (grass), --
6:12. and there seated on (that)
seat, fixing his mind exclusively on one point, with the workings
of the mind and senses restrained, he should practice devotion for
purity of self.
6:13. Holding his body, head, and
neck even and unmoved, (remaining) steady, looking at the tip of
his own nose, and not looking about in (all) directions,
6:14. with a tranquil self, devoid
of fear, and adhering to the rules of Brahmakarins, he should
restrain his mind, and (concentrate it) on me, and sit down
engaged in devotion, regarding me as his final goal.
6:15. Thus constantly devoting his
self to abstraction, a devotee whose mind is restrained, attains
that tranquillity which culminates in final emancipation, and
assimilation with me.
6:16. Devotion is not his, O
Arguna! who eats too much, nor his who eats not at all; not his
who is addicted to too much sleep, nor his who is (ever) awake.
6:17. That devotion which destroys
(all) misery is his, who takes due food and exercise, who toils
duly in all works, and who sleeps and awakes (in) due (time).
6:18. When (a man's) mind well
restrained becomes steady upon the self alone, then he being
indifferent to all objects of desire, is said to be devoted.
6:19. As a light standing in a
windless (place) flickers not, that is declared to be the parallel
for a devotee, whose mind is restrained, and who devotes his self
6:20. That (mental condition), in
which the mind restrained by practice, of abstraction, ceases to
work; in which too, one seeing the self by the self, is pleased in
6:21. in which one experiences
that infinite happiness which transcends the senses, and which can
be grasped by the understanding only; and adhering to which, one
never swerves from the truth; acquiring which, one thinks no other
acquisition higher than it;
6:22. and adhering to which, one
is not shaken off even by great misery; that should be understood
to be called devotion in which there is a severance of all
connexion with pain.
6:23. That devotion should be
practised with steadiness and with an undesponding heart.
6:24. Abandoning, without
exception, all desires, which are produced from fancies, and
restraining the whole group of the senses on all sides by the mind
6:25. one should by slow steps
become quiescent, with a firm resolve coupled with courage; and
fixing the mind upon the self, should think of nothing.
6:26. Wherever the active and
unsteady mind breaks forth, there one should ever restrain it, and
fix it steadily on the self alone.
6:27. The highest happiness comes
to such a devotee, whose mind is fully tranquil, in whom the
quality of passion has been suppressed, who is free from sin, and
who is become (one with) the Brahman.
6:28. Thus constantly devoting his
self to abstraction, a devotee, freed from sin, easily obtains
that supreme happiness-contact with the Brahman.
6:29. He who has devoted his self
to abstraction, by devotion, looking alike on everything, sees the
self abiding in all beings, and all beings in the self.
6:30. To him who sees me in
everything, and everything in me, I am never lost, and he is not
lost to me.
6:31. The devotee who worships me
abiding in all beings, holding that all is one, lives in me,
however he may be living.
6:32. That devotee, O Arguna! is
deemed to be the best, who looks alike on pleasure or pain,
whatever it may be, in all (creatures), comparing all with his own
(pleasure or pain).
6:33. I cannot see, O destroyer of
Madhu! (how) the sustained existence (is to be secured) of this
devotion by means of equanimity which you have declared -- in
consequence of fickleness.
6:34. For, O Krishna! the mind is
fickle, boisterous, strong, and obstinate; and I think that to
restrain it is as difficult as (to restrain) the wind.
The Deity said:
6:35. Doubtless, O you of mighty
arms! the mind is difficult to restrain, and fickle. Still, O son
of Kunti! it may be restrained by constant practice and by
indifference (to worldly objects).
6:36. It is my belief, that
devotion is hard to obtain for one who does not restrain his self.
But by one who is self-restrained and assiduous, it can be
obtained through (proper) expedients.
6:37. What is the end of him, O
Krishna! who does not attain the consummation of his devotion,
being not assiduous, and having a mind shaken off from devotion,
(though) full of faith?
6:38. Does he, fallen from both
(paths), go to ruin like a broken cloud, being, O you of mighty
arms! without support, and deluded on the path (leading) to the
6:39. Be pleased, O Krishna! to
entirely destroy this doubt of mine, for none else than you can
destroy this doubt.
The Deity said:
6:40. O son of Pritha neither in
this world nor the next, is ruin for him; for, O dear friend! none
who performs good (deeds) comes to an evil end.
6:41. He who is fallen from
devotion attains the worlds of those who perform meritorious acts,
dwells (there) for many a year, and is afterwards born into a
family of holy and illustrious men.
6:42. Or he is even born into a
family of talented devotees; for such a birth as that in this
world is more difficult to obtain.
6:43. There he comes into contact
with the knowledge which belonged to him in his former body, and
then again, O descendant of Kuru! he works for perfection.
6:44. For even though reluctant,
he is led away by the self-same former practice, and although he
only wishes to learn devotion, he rises above the (fruits of
action laid down in the) divine word.
6:45. But the devotee working with
great efforts, and cleared of his sins, attains perfection after
many births, and then reaches the supreme goal.
6:46. The devotee is esteemed
higher than the performers of penances, higher even than the men
of knowledge, and the devotee is higher than the men of action;
therefore, O Arguna! become a devotee.
6:47. And even among all devotees,
he who, being full of faith, worships me, with his inmost self
intent on me, is esteemed by me to be the most devoted.
~ Chapter 7 ~
7:1. O son of Pritha! now hear how
you can without doubt know me fully, fixing your mind on me, and
resting in me, and practising devotion.
7:2. I will now tell you
exhaustively about knowledge together with experience; that being
known, there is nothing further left in this world to know.
7:3. Among thousands of men, only
some work for perfection; and even of those who have reached
perfection, and who are assiduous, only some know me truly.
7:4. Earth, water, fire, air,
space, mind, understanding, and egoism, thus is my nature divided
7:5. But this is a lower (form of
my) nature. Know (that there is) another (form of my) nature, and
higher than this, which is animate, O you of mighty arms! and by
which this universe is upheld.
7:6. Know that all things have
these (for their) source. I am the producer and the destroyer of
the whole universe.
7:7. There is nothing else, O
Dhanangaya! higher than myself; all this is woven upon me, like
numbers of pearls upon a thread.
7:8. I am the taste in water, O
son of Kunti! I am the light of the sun and moon. I am `Om' in all
the Vedas, sound in space, and manliness in human beings;
7:9. I am the fragrant smell in
the earth, refulgence in the fire; I am life in all beings, and
penance in those who perform penance.
7:10. Know me, O son of Pritha! to
be the eternal seed of all beings; I am the discernment of the
discerning ones, and I the glory of the glorious.
7:11. I am also the strength,
unaccompanied by fondness or desire, of the strong. And, O chief
of the descendants of Bharata! I am love unopposed to piety among
7:12. And all entities which are
of the quality of goodness, and those which are of the quality of
passion and of darkness, know that they are, indeed, all from me;
I am not in them, but they are in me.
7:13. The whole universe deluded
by these three states of mind, developed from the qualities, does
not know me, who am beyond them and inexhaustible;
7:14. for this delusion of mine,
developed from the qualities, is divine and difficult to
transcend. Those who resort to me alone cross beyond this
7:15. Wicked men, doers of evil
(acts), who are deluded, who are deprived of their knowledge by
(this) delusion, and who incline to the demoniac state of mind, do
not resort to me.
7:16. But, O Arguna! doers of good
(acts) of four classes worship me: one who is distressed, one who
is seeking after knowledge, one who wants wealth, and one, O chief
of the descendants of Bharata! who is possessed of knowledge.
7:17. Of these, he who is
possessed of knowledge, who is always devoted, and whose worship
is (addressed) to one (Being) only, is esteemed highest.
7:18. For to the man of knowledge
I am dear above all things, and he is dear to me. All these are
noble. But the man possessed of knowledge is deemed by me to be my
own self. For he with (his) self devoted to abstraction, has taken
to me as the goal than which there is nothing higher.
7:19. At the end of many lives,
the man possessed of knowledge approaches me, (believing) that
Vasudeva is everything. Such a high-souled man is very hard to
7:20. Those who are deprived of
knowledge by various desires approach other divinities, observing
various regulations, and controlled by their own natures.
7:21. Whichever form (of deity)
any worshipper wishes to worship with faith, to that form I render
his faith steady.
7:22. Possessed of that faith, he
seeks to propitiate (the deity in) that (form), and obtains from
it those beneficial things which he desires, (though they are)
really given by me.
7:23. But the fruit thus
(obtained) by them, who have little judgment, is perishable. Those
who worship the divinities go to the divinities, and my
worshippers, too, go to me.
7:24. The undiscerning ones, not
knowing my transcendent and inexhaustible essence, than which
there is nothing higher, think me, who am unperceived, to have
7:25. Surrounded by the delusion
of my mystic power, I am not manifest to all. This deluded world
knows not me unborn and inexhaustible.
7:26. I know, O Arguna! the things
which have been, those which are, and those which are to be. But
me nobody knows.
7:27. All beings, O terror of
(your) foes! are deluded at the time of birth by the delusion, O
descendant of Bharata! caused by the pairs of opposites arising
from desire and aversion.
7:28. But the men of meritorious
actions, whose sins have terminated, worship me, being released
from the delusion (caused) by the pairs of opposites, and being
firm in their beliefs.
7:29. Those who, resting on me,
work for release from old age and death, know the Brahman, the
whole Adhyitma, and all action.
7:30. And those who know me with
the Adhibhuta, the Adhidaiva, and the Adhiyagna, having minds
devoted to abstraction, know me at the time of departure (from
~ Chapter 8 ~
8:1. What is that Brahman, what
the Adhyatma, and what, O best of beings! is action? And what is
called the Adhibhuta?
8:2. And who is the Adhiyagna, and
how in this body, O destroyer of Madhu? And how, too, are you to
be known at the time of departure (from this world) by those who
restrain their selfs?
The Deity said:
8:3. The Brahman is the supreme,
the indestructible. Its manifestation (as an individual self) is
called the Adhyatma. The offering (of an oblation to any
divinity), which is the cause of the production and development of
all things, is named action.
8:4. The Adhibhuta is all
perishable things. The Adhidaivata is the (primal) being. And the
Adhiyagna, O best of embodied (beings)! is I myself in this body.
8:5. And he who leaves this body
and departs (from this world) remembering me in (his) last
moments, comes into my essence. There is no doubt of that.
8:6. Also whichever form (of
deity) he remembers when he finally leaves this body, to that he
goes, O son of Kunti! having been used to ponder on it.
8:7. Therefore, at all times
remember me, and engage in battle.
8:8. Fixing your mind and
understanding on me, you will come to me, there is no doubt.
8:9. He who thinks of the supreme
divine Being, O son of Pritha! with a mind not (running) to other
(objects), and possessed of abstraction in the shape of continuous
meditation (about the supreme), goes to him.
8:10. He who, possessed of
reverence (for the supreme Being) with a steady mind, and with the
power of devotion, properly concentrates the life-breath between
the brows, and meditates on the ancient Seer, the ruler, more
minute than the minutest atom, the supporter of all, who is of an
unthinkable form, whose brilliance is like that of the sun, and
who is beyond all darkness, he attains to that transcendent and
8:11. I will tell you briefly
about the seat, which those who know the Vedas declare to be
indestructible; which is entered by ascetics from whom all desires
have departed; and wishing for which, people pursue the mode of
life of Brahmakarins.
8:12. He who leaves the body and
departs (from this world), stopping up all passages, and confining
the mind within the heart placing the life-breath in the head, and
adhering to uninterrupted meditation,
8:13. repeating the single
syllable `Om,' (signifying) the eternal Brahman, and meditating on
me, he reaches the highest goal.
8:14. To the devotee who
constantly practises abstraction, O son of Pritha! and who with a
mind not (turned) to anything else, is ever and constantly
meditating on me, I am easy of access.
8:15. The high-souled ones, who
achieve the highest perfection, attaining to me, do not again come
to life, which is transient, a home of woes.
8:16. All worlds, O Arguna! up to
the world of Brahman, are (destined) to return. But, O son of
Kunti! after attaining to me, there is no birth again.
8:17. Those who know a day of
Brahman to end after one thousand ages, and the night to terminate
after one thousand ages, are the persons who know day and night.
8:18. On the advent of day, all
perceptible things are produced from the unperceived; and on the
advent of night they dissolve in that same (principle) called the
8:19. This same assemblage of
entities, being produced again and again, dissolves on the advent
of night, and, O son of Pritha! issues forth on the advent of day,
without a will of its own.
8:20. But there is another entity,
unperceived and eternal, and distinct from this unperceived
(principle), which is not destroyed when all entities are
8:21. It is called the
unperceived, the indestructible; they call it the highest goal.
Attaining to it, none returns. That is my supreme abode.
8:22. That supreme Being, O son of
Pritha! he in whom all these entities dwell, and by whom all this
is permeated, is to be attained to by reverence not (directed) to
8:23. I will state the times, O
descendant of Bharata! at which devotees departing (from this
world) go, never to return, or to return.
8:24. The fire, the flame, the
day, the bright fortnight, the six months of the northern
solstice, departing (from the world) in these, those who know the
Brahman go to the Brahman.
8:25. Smoke, night, the dark
fortnight, the six months of the southern solstice, (dying) in
these, the devotee goes to the lunar light and returns.
8:26. These two paths, bright and
dark, are deemed to be eternal in this world. By the one, (a man)
goes never to return, by the other he comes back.
8:27. Knowing these two paths, O
son of Pritha! no devotee is deluded. Therefore at all times be
possessed of devotion, O Arguna!
8:28. A devotee knowing all this,
obtains all the holy fruit which is prescribed for (study of) the
Vedas, for sacrifices, and also for penances and gifts, and he
attains to the highest and primeval seat.
~ Chapter 9 ~
9:1. Now I will speak to you, who
are not given to carping, of that most mysterious knowledge,
accompanied by experience, by knowing which you will be released
9:2. It is the chief among the
sciences, the chief among the mysteries. It is the best means of
sanctification. It is imperishable, not opposed to the sacred law.
It is to be apprehended directly, and is easy to practise.
9:3. O terror of your foes! those
men who have no faith in this holy doctrine, return to the path of
this mortal world, without attaining to me.
9:4. This whole universe is
pervaded, by me in an unperceived form. All entities live in me,
but I, do not live in them.
9:5. Nor yet do all entities live
in me. See my divine power. Supporting all entities and producing
all entities, my self lives not in (those) entities.
9:6. As the great and ubiquitous
atmosphere always remains in space, know that similarly all
entities live in me.
9:7. At the expiration of a Kalpa,
O son of Kunti! all entities enter my nature; and at the beginning
of a Kalpa, I again bring them forth.
9:8. Taking the control of my own
nature, I bring forth again and again this whole collection of
entities, without a will of its own, by the power of nature.
9:9. But, O Arguna! these actions
do not fetter me, who remain like one unconcerned, and who am
unattached to those actions.
9:10. Nature gives birth to
movables and immovables through me, the supervisor, and by reason
of that, O son of Kunti! the universe revolves.
9:11. Deluded people of vain
hopes, vain acts, vain knowledge, whose minds are disordered,
9:12. and who are inclined to the
delusive nature of Asuras and Rakshasas, not knowing my highest
nature as great lord of all entities, disregard me as I have
assumed a human body.
9:13. But the high-souled ones, O
son of Pritha! who are inclined to the godlike nature, knowing me
as the inexhaustible source of (all) entities, worship me with
minds not (turned) elsewhere.
9:14. Constantly glorifying me,
and exerting themselves, firm in their vows, and saluting me with
reverence, they worship me, being always devoted.
9:15. And others again, offering
up the sacrifice of knowledge, worship me as one, as distinct, and
as all-pervading in numerous forms.
9:16. I am the Kratu, I am the
Yagna, I am the Svadha, I the product of the herbs. I am the
sacred verse. I too am the sacrificial butter, and I the fire, I
9:17. I am the father of this
universe, the mother, the creator, the grandsire, the thing to be
known, the means of sanctification, the syllable Om, the Rik,
Saman, and Yagus also;
9:18. the goal, the sustainer, the
lord, the supervisor, the residence, the asylum, the friend, the
source, and that in which it merges, the support, the receptacle,
and the inexhaustible seed.
9:19. I cause heat and I send
forth and stop showers. I am immortality and also death; and I, O
Arguna! am that which is and that which is not.
9:20. Those who know the three
(branches of) knowledge, who drink the Soma juice, whose sins are
washed away, offer sacrifices and pray to me for a passage into
heaven; and reaching the holy world of the lord of gods, they
enjoy in the celestial regions the celestial pleasures of the
gods. And having enjoyed that great heavenly world, they enter the
mortal world when (their) merit is exhausted.
9:21. Thus those who wish for
objects of desire, and resort to the ordinances of the three
(Vedas), obtain (as the fruit) going and coming.
9:22. To those men who worship me,
meditating on me and on no one else, and who are constantly
devoted, I give new gifts and preserve what is acquired by them.
9:23. Even those, O son of Kunti!
who being devotees of other divinities worship with faith, worship
me only, (but) irregularly.
9:24. For I am the enjoyer as well
as the lord of all sacrifices. But they know me not truly,
therefore do they fall.
9:25. Those who make vows to the
gods go to the gods; those who make vows to the manes go to the
manes those who worship the Bhutas go to the Bhutas; and those
likewise who worship me go to me.
9:26. Whoever with devotion offers
me leaf, flower, fruit, water, that, presented with devotion, I
accept from him whose self is pure.
9:27. Whatever you do, O son of
Kunti! whatever you eat, whatever sacrifice you make, whatever you
give, whatever penance you perform, do that as offered to me.
9:28. Thus will you be released
from the bonds of action, the fruits of which are agreeable or
disagreeable. And with your self possessed of (this) devotion,
(this) renunciation, you will be released (from the bonds of
action) and will come to me.
9:29. I am alike to all beings; to
me none is hateful, none dear. But those who worship me with
devotion (dwell) in me, and I too in them.
9:30. Even if a very ill-conducted
man worships me, not worshipping any one else, he must certainly
be deemed to be good, for he has well resolved.
9:31. He soon becomes devout of
heart, and obtains lasting tranquillity. (You may) affirm, O son
of Kunti! that my devotee is never ruined.
9:32. For, O son of Pritha! even
those who are of sinful birth, women, Vaisyas, and Sudras
likewise, resorting to me, attain the supreme goal.
9:33. What then (need be said of)
holy Brahmanas and royal saints who are (my) devotees? Coming to
this transitent unhappy world, worship me.
9:34. (Place your) mind on me,
become my devotee, my worshipper; reverence me, and thus making me
your highest goal, and devoting your self to abstraction, you will
certainly come to me.
~ Chapterr 10 ~
10:1. Yet again, O you of mighty
arms! listen to my excellent words, which, out of a wish for your
welfare, I speak to you who are delighted (with them).
10:2. Not the multitudes of gods,
nor the great sages know my source; for I am in every way the
origin of the gods and great sages.
10:3. Of (all) mortals, he who
knows me to be unborn, without beginning, the great lord of the
world, being free from delusion, is released from all sins.
10:4. Intelligence, knowledge,
freedom from delusion, forgiveness, truth, restraint of the
10:5. tranquillity, pleasure,
pain, birth, death, fear, and also security, harmlessness,
equability, contentment, penance, (making) gifts, glory, disgrace,
all these different tempers of living beings are from me alone.
10:6. The seven great sages, and
likewise the four ancient Manus, whose descendants are (all) these
people in the world, were all born from my mind, (partaking) of my
10:7. Whoever correctly knows
these powers and emanations of mine, becomes possessed of devotion
free from indecision; of this (there is) no doubt.
10:8. The wise, full of love,
worship me, believing that I am the origin of all, and that all
moves on through me.
10:9. (Placing their) minds on me,
offering (their) lives to me, instructing each other, and speaking
about me, they are always contented and happy.
10:10. To these, who are
constantly devoted, and who worship with love, I give that
knowledge by which they attain to me.
10:11. And remaining in their
hearts, I destroy, with the brilliant lamp of knowledge, the
darkness born of ignorance in such (men) only, out of compassion
10:12. You are the supreme
Brahman, the supreme goal, the holiest of the holy.
10:13. All sages, as well as the
divine sage Narada, Asita, Devala, and Vyasa, call you the eternal
being, divine, the first god, the unborn, the all-pervading.
10:14. And so, too, you tell me
yourself, O Kesava!
10:15. I believe all this that you
tell me (to be) true; for, O lord! neither the gods nor demons
understand your manifestation. You only know your self by your
10:16. O best of beings! creator
of all things! lord of all things! god of gods! lord of the
universe! be pleased to declare without exception your divine
emanations, by which emanations you stand pervading all these
10:17. How shall I know you, O you
of mystic power! always meditating on you? And in what various
entities, O lord! should I meditate on you?
10:18. Again, O Ganardana! do you
yourself declare your powers and emanations; because hearing this
nectar, I (still) feel no satiety.
The Deity said:
10:19. Well then, O best of
Kauravas! I will state to you my own divine emanations; but (only)
the chief (ones), for there is no end to the extent of my
10:20. I am the self, O Gudakesa!
seated in the hearts of all beings. I am the beginning and the
middle and the end also of all beings.
10:21. I am Vishnu among the
Adityas, the beaming sun among the shining (bodies); I am Mariki
among the Maruts, and the moon among the lunar mansions.
10:22. Among the Vedas, I am the
Sama-veda. I am Indra among the gods. And I am mind among the
senses. I am consciousness in (living) beings.
10:23. And I am Sankara among the
Rudras, the lord of wealth among Yakshas and Rakshases. And I am
fire among the Vasus, and Meru among the high-topped (mountains).
10:24. And know me, O Arguna! to
be Brihaspati, the chief among domestic priests. I am Skanda among
generals. I am the ocean among reservoirs of water.
10:25. I am Bhrigu among the great
sages. I am the single syllable (OM) among words. Among sacrifices
I am the Gapa sacrifice; the Himalaya among the firmly-fixed
10:26. the Asvattha among all
trees, and Narada among divine sages; Kitraratha among the
heavenly choristers, the sage Kapila among the Siddhas.
10:27. Among horses know me to be
Ukkaissravas, brought forth by (the labours for) the nectar; and
Airavata among the great elephants, and the ruler of men among
10:28. I am the thunderbolt among
weapons, the wish-giving (cow) among cows. And I am love which
generates. Among serpents I am Vasuki.
10:29. Among Naga snakes I am
Ananta; I am Varuna among aquatic beings. And I am Aryaman among
the manes, and Yama among rulers.
10:30. Among demons, too, I am
Pralhada. I am the king of death (Kala, time) among those that
count. Among beasts I am the lord of beasts, and the son of Vinata
10:31. I am the wind among those
that blow. I am Rama among those that wield weapons. Among fishes
I am Makara, and among streams the Gahnavi.
10:32. Of created things I am the
beginning and the end and the middle also, O Arguna! Among
sciences, I am the science of the Adhyatma, and I am the argument
10:33. Among letters I am the
letter A, and among the group of compounds the copulative
compound. I myself am time inexhaustible, and I the creator whose
faces are in all directions.
10:34. I am death who seizes all,
and the source of what is to be. And among females, fame, fortune,
speech, memory, intellect, courage, forgiveness.
10:35. Likewise among Saman hymns,
I am the Brihat-saman, and I the Gayatri among metres. I am
Margasirsha among the months, the spring among the seasons;
10:36. of cheats, I am the game of
dice; I am the glory of the glorious; victory, I am industry, I am
the goodness of the good.
10:37. I am Vasudeva among the
descendants of Vrishni, and Arguna among the Pandavas. Among sages
also, I am Vyasa; and among the discerning ones, I am the
10:38. I am the rod of those that
restrain, and the policy of those that desire victory. I am
silence respecting secrets. I am the knowledge of those that have
10:39. And, O Arguna! I am also
that which is the seed of all things. There is nothing movable or
immovable which can exist without me.
10:40. O terror of your foes!
there is no end to my divine emanations. Here I have declared the
extent of (those) emanations only in part.
10:41. Whatever thing (there is)
of power, or glorious, or splendid, know all that to be produced
from portions of my energy.
10:42. Or rather, O Arguna! what
have you to do, knowing all this at large? I stand supporting all
this by (but) a single portion (of myself).
~ Chapter 11 ~
11:1. In consequence of the
excellent and mysterious words concerning the relation of the
supreme and individual soul, which you have spoken for my welfare,
this delusion of mine is gone away.
11:2. O you whose eyes are like
lotus leaves! I have heard from you at large about the production
and dissolution of things, and also about your inexhaustible
11:3. O highest lord! what you
have said about yourself is so. I wish, O best of beings! to see
your divine form.
11:4. If, O lord! you think that
it is possible for me to look upon it, then, O lord of the
possessors of mystic power! show your inexhaustible form to me.
The Deity said:
11:5. In hundreds and in thousands
see my forms, O son of Pritha! various, divine, and of various
colours and shapes.
11:6. See the Adityas, Vasus,
Rudras, the two Asvins, and Maruts likewise. And O descendant of
Bharata! see wonders, in numbers, unseen before.
11:7. Within my body, O Gudakesa!
see to-day the whole universe, including (everything) movable and
immovable, (all) in one, and whatever else you wish to see.
11:8. But you will not be able to
see me with merely this eye of yours. I give you an eye divine.
(Now) see my divine power.
11:9. Having spoken thus, O king!
Hari, the great lord of the possessors of mystic power, then
showed to the son of Pritha his supreme divine form,
11:10. having many mouths and
eyes, having (within it) many wonderful sights,
11:11. having many celestial
ornaments, having, many celestial weapons held erect, wearing
celestial flowers and vestments, having an anointment of celestial
perfumes, full of every wonder, the infinite deity with faces in
11:12. If in the heavens, the
lustre of a thousand suns burst forth all at once, that would be
like the lustre of that mighty one.
11:13. There the son of Pandu then
observed in the body of the god of gods the whole universe (all)
in one, and divided into numerous (divisions).
11:14. Then Dhanangaya filled with
amazement, and with hair standing on end, bowed his head before
the god, and spoke with joined hands.
11:15. O god! I see within your
body the gods, as also all the groups of various beings; and the
lord Brahman seated on (his) lotus seat, and all the sages and
11:16. I see you, who are of
countless forms, possessed of many arms, stomachs, mouths, and
eyes on all sides. And, O lord of the universe! O you of all
forms! I do not see your end or middle or beginning.
11:17. I see you bearing a coronet
and a mace and a discus -- a mass of glory, brilliant on all
sides, difficult to look at, having on all sides the effulgence of
a blazing fire or sun, and indefinable.
11:18. You are indestructible, the
supreme one to be known. You are the highest support of this
universe. You are the inexhaustible protector of everlasting
piety. I believe you to be the eternal being.
11:19. I see you void of
beginning, middle, end -- of infinite power, of unnumbered arms,
having the sun and moon for eyes, having a mouth like a blazing
fire, and heating the universe with your radiance.
11:20. For this space between
heaven and earth and all the quarters are pervaded by you alone.
Looking, at this wonderful and terrible form of yours, O
high-souled one! the three worlds are affrighted.
11:21. For here these groups of
gods are entering into you. Some being afraid are praying with
joined hands, and the groups of great sages and Siddhas are saying
`Welfare!' and praising you with abundant (hymns) of praise.
11:22. The Rudras, and Adityas,
the Vasus, the Sadhyas, the Visvas, the two Asvins, the Maruts,
and the Ushmapas, and the groups of Gandharvas, Yakshas, demons,
and Siddhas are all looking at you amazed.
11:23. Seeing your mighty form,
with many mouths and eyes, with many arms, thighs, and feet, with
many stomachs, and fearful with many jaws, all people, and I
like-wise, are much alarmed, O you of mighty arms!
11:24. Seeing you, O Vishnu!
touching the skies, radiant, possessed of many hues, with a gaping
mouth, and with large blazing eyes, I am much alarmed in my inmost
self, and feel no courage, no tranquillity.
11:25. And seeing your mouths
terrible by the jaws, and resembling the fire of destruction, I
cannot recognise the (various) directions, I feel no comfort. Be
gracious, O lord of gods! who pervadest the universe.
11:26. And all these sons of
Dhritarashtra, together with all the bands of kings, and Bhishma
and Drona, and this charioteer's son likewise, together with our
principal warriors also,
11:27. are rapidly entering your
mouths, fearful and horrific by (reason of your) jaws. And some
with their heads smashed are seen (to be) stuck in the spaces
between the teeth.
11:28. As the many rapid currents
of a river's waters run towards the sea alone, so do these heroes
of the human world enter your mouths blazing all round.
11:29. As butterflies, with
increased velocity, enter a blazing fire to their destruction, so
too do these people enter your mouths with increased velocity
(only) to their destruction.
11:30. Swallowing all these
people, you are licking them over and over again from all sides,
with your blazing mouths. Your fierce splendours, O Vishnu!
filling the whole universe with (their) effulgence, are heating
11:31. Tell me who you are in this
fierce form. Salutations be to thee, O chief of the gods! Be
gracious. I wish to know you, the primeval one, for I do not
understand your actions.
The Deity said:
11:32. I am death, the destroyer
of the worlds, fully developed, and I am now active about the
overthrow of the worlds. Even without you, the warriors standing
in the adverse hosts, shall all cease to be.
11:33. Therefore, be up, obtain
glory, and vanquishing (your) foes, enjoy a prosperous kingdom.
All these have been already killed by me. Be only the instrument,
11:34. Drona, and Bhishma, and
Gayadratha, and Karna, and likewise other valiant warriors also,
whom I have killed, do you kill. Be not alarmed. Do fight. And in
the battle you will conquer (your) foes.
11:35. Hearing these words of
Kesava, the wearer of the coronet, trembling, and with joined
hands, bowed down and sorely afraid, and with throat choked up, he
again spoke to Krishna after saluting him.
11:36. It is quite proper, O
Hrishikesa! that the universe is delighted and charmed by your
renown, that the demons run away affrighted in all directions, and
that all the assemblages of Siddhas bow down (to you).
11:37. And why, O high-souled one!
should they not bow down to you (who are) greater than Brahman,
and first cause? O infinite lord of gods! O you pervading the
universe! you are the indestructible, that which is, that which is
not, and what is beyond them.
11:38. You are the primal god, the
ancient being, you are the highest support of this universe. You
are that which has knowledge, that which is the object of
knowledge, you are the highest goal. By you is this universe
pervaded, O you of infinite forms!
11:39. You are the wind, Yama,
fire, Varuna, the moon, you Pragapati, and the great grandsire.
Obeisance be to thee a thousand times, and again and again
obeisance to thee!
11:40. In front and from behind
obeisance to thee! Obeisance be to thee from all sides, O you who
are all! You are of infinite power, of unmeasured glory; you
pervade all, and therefore you are all!
11:41. Whatever I have said
contemptuously, -- for instance, `O Krishna!' `O Yadava!' `O
friend!' -- thinking you to be (my) friend, and not knowing your
greatness (as shown in) this (universal form),
11:42. or through friendliness, or
incautiously; and whatever disrespect I have shown you for
purposes of merriment, on (occasions of) play, sleep, dinner, or
sitting (together), whether alone or in the presence (of
friends),-- for all that, O undegraded one! I ask pardon of you
who are indefinable.
11:43. You are the father of the
world -- movable and immovable -- you its great and venerable
master; there is none equal to you, whence can there be one
greater, O you whose power is unparalleled in all the three
11:44. Therefore I bow and
prostrate myself, and would propitiate you, the praiseworthy lord.
Be pleased, O god! to pardon (my guilt) as a father (that of his)
son, a friend (that of his) friend, or a husband (that of his)
11:45. I am delighted at seeing
what I had never seen before, and my heart is also alarmed by
fear. Show me that same form, O god! Be gracious, O lord of gods!
O you pervading the universe!
11:46. I wish to see you bearing
the coronet and the mace, with the discus in hand, just the same
(as before). O you of thousand arms! O you of all forms! assume
that same four-handed form.
The Deity said:
11:47. O Arguna! being pleased
(with you), I have by my own mystic power shown you this supreme
form, full of glory, universal, infinite, primeval, and which has
not been seen before by any one else but you, O you hero among the
11:48. I cannot be seen in this
form by any one but you, (even) by (the help of) the study of the
Vedas, or of sacrifices, nor by gifts, nor by actions, nor by
11:49. Be not alarmed, be not
perplexed, at seeing this form of mine, fearful like this. Free
from fear and with delighted heart, see now again that same form
11:50. Having thus spoken to
Arguna, Vasudeva again showed his own form, and the high-souled
one becoming again of a mild form, comforted him who had been
11:51. O Ganardana! seeing this
mild, human form of yours, I am now in my right mind, and have
come to my normal state.
The Deity said:
11:52. Even the gods are always
desiring to see this form of mine, which it is difficult to get a
sight of, and which you have seen.
11:53. I cannot be seen, as you
have seen me, by (means of) the Vedas, not by penance, not by
gift, nor yet by sacrifice.
11:54. But, O Arguna! by devotion
to me exclusively, I can in this form be truly known, seen, and
assimilated with, O terror of your foes!
11:55. He who performs acts for
(propitiating) me, to whom I am the highest (object), who is my
devotee, who is free from attachment, and who has no enmity
towards any being, he, O son of Pandu I comes to me.
~ Chapter 12 ~
12:1. Of the worshippers, who
thus, constantly devoted, meditate on you, and those who
(meditate) on the unperceived and indestructible, which do best
The Deity said:
12:2. Those who being constantly
devoted, and possessed of the highest faith, worship me with a
mind fixed on me, are deemed by me to be the most devoted.
12:3. But those, who, restraining
the (whole) group of the senses, and with a mind at all times
equable, meditate on the indescribable, indestructible,
unperceived (principle) which is all-pervading, unthinkable,
12:4. immovable, and constant,
they, intent on the good of all beings, necessarily attain to me.
12:5. For those whose minds are
attached to the unperceived, the trouble is much greater.
12:6. Because the unperceived goal
is obtained by embodied (beings) with difficulty.
12:7. As to those, however, O son
of Pritha! who, dedicating all their actions to me, and (holding)
me as their highest (goal), worship me, meditating on me with a
devotion towards none besides me, and whose minds are fixed on me,
I, without delay, come forward as their deliverer from the ocean
of this world of death.
12:8. Place your mind on me only;
fix your understanding on me. In me you will dwell, hereafter,
(there is) no doubt.
12:9. But if you are unable to fix
your mind steadily on me, then, O Dhanangaya! endeavour to obtain
me by the abstraction of mind (resulting) from continuous
12:10. If you are unequal even to
continuous meditation, then let acts for (propitiating) me be your
highest (aim). Even performing actions for (propitiating) me, you
will attain perfection.
12:11. If you are unable to do
even this, then resort to devotion to me, and, with
self-restraint, abandon all fruit of action.
12:12. For knowledge is better
than continuous meditation; concentration is esteemed higher than
knowledge; and the abandonment of fruit of action than
concentration; from (that) abandonment, tranquillity soon
12:13. That devotee of mine, who
hates no being, who is friendly and compassionate, who is free
from egoism, and from (the idea that this or that is) mine, to
whom happiness and misery are alike, who is forgiving,
12:14. contented, constantly
devoted, self-restrained, and firm in his determinations, and
whose mind and understanding are devoted to me, he is dear to me.
12:15. He through whom the world
is not agitated, and who is not agitated by the world, who is free
from joy and anger and fear and agitation, he too is dear to me.
12:16. That devotee of mine, who
is unconcerned, pure, assiduous, impartial, free from distress,
who abandons all actions (for fruit), he is dear to me.
12:17. He who is full of devotion
to me, who feels no joy and no aversion, who does not grieve and
does not desire, who abandons (both what is) agreeable and (what
is) disagreeable, he is dear to me.
12:18. He who is alike to friend
and foe, as also in honour and dishonour, who is alike in cold and
heat, pleasure and pain, who is free from attachments,
12:19. to whom praise and blame
are alike, who is taciturn, and contented with anything whatever
(that comes), who is homeless, and of a steady mind, and full of
devotion, that man is dear to me.
12:20. But those devotees who,
imbued with faith, and (regarding) me as their highest (goal),
resort to this holy (means for attaining) immortality, as stated,
they are extremely dear to me.
~ Chapter 13 ~
The Deity said:
13:1. This body, O son of Kunti!
is called Kshetra and the learned call him who knows it the
13:2. And know me also, O
descendant of Bharata! to be the Kshetragna in all Kshetras.
13:3. The knowledge of Kshetra and
Kshetragna is deemed by me (to be real) knowledge. Now hear from
me in brief what that Kshetra (is), what (it is) like, what
changes (it undergoes), and whence (it comes), and what is he, and
what his powers,
13:4. (all which) is sung in
various ways by sages in numerous hymns, distinctly, and in
well-settled texts full of argument, giving indications or full
instruction about the Brahman.
13:5. The great elements, egoism,
the understanding, the unperceived also, the ten senses, and the
one, and the five objects of sense,
13:6. desire, aversion, pleasure,
pain, body, consciousness, courage, thus in brief has been
declared the Kshetra with changes.
13:7. Absence of vanity, absence
of ostentatiousness, absence of hurtfulness, forgiveness,
straightforwardness, devotion to a preceptor, purity, steadiness,
13:8. indifference towards objects
of sense, and also absence of egoism; perception of the misery and
evil of birth, death, old age, and disease;
13:9. absence of attachment,
absence of self-identifying regard for son, wife, home, and so
forth; and constant equability on the approach of (both what is)
agreeable and (what is) disagreeable;
13:10. unswerving devotion to me,
without meditation on any one else; resorting to clean places,
distaste for assemblages of men,
13:11. constancy in knowledge of
the relation of the individual self to the supreme, perception of
the object of knowledge of the truth, this is called knowledge;
that is ignorance which is opposed to this.
13:12. I will declare that which
is the object of knowledge, knowing which, one reaches
immortality; the highest Brahman, having no beginning nor end,
which cannot be said to be existent or non-existent.
13:13. It has hands and feet on
all sides, it has eyes, heads, and faces on all sides, it has ears
on all sides, it stands pervading everything in the world.
13:14. Possessed of the qualities
of all the senses, (but) devoid of all senses, unattached, it
supports all, is devoid of qualities, and the enjoyer of
13:15. It is within all things and
without them; it is movable and also immovable; it is unknowable
through (its) subtlety; it stands afar and near.
13:16. Not different in
(different) things, but standing as though different, it should be
known to be the supporter of (all) things, and that which absorbs
and creates (them).
13:17. It is the radiance even of
the radiant (bodies); it is said (to be) beyond darkness. It is
knowledge, the object of knowledge, that which is to be attained
to by knowledge, and placed in the heart of all.
13:18. Thus in brief have Kshetra,
knowledge, and the object of knowledge been declared. My devotee,
knowing this, becomes fit for assimilation with me.
13:19. Know nature and spirit both
(to be) without beginning, and know all developments and qualities
(to be) produced from nature.
13:20. Nature is said to be the
origin of the capacity of working (residing) in the body and the
senses; and spirit is said (to be) the origin of the capacity of
enjoying pleasures and pains.
13:21. For spirit with nature
joined, enjoys the qualities born of nature. And the cause of its
birth in good or evil wombs is the connexion with the qualities.
13:22. The supreme spirit in this
body is called supervisor, adviser, supporter, enjoyer, the great
lord, and the supreme self also.
13:23. He who thus knows nature
and spirit, together with the qualities, is not born again,
13:24. Some by concentration see
the self in the self by the self; others by the Sankhya-yoga; and
others still by the Karma-yoga;
13:25. others yet, not knowing
this, practise concentration, after hearing from others. They,
too, being (thus) devoted to hearing (instruction) cross beyond
13:26. Whatever thing movable or
immovable comes into existence, know that to be from the connexion
of Kshetra and Kshetragna, O chief of the descendants of Bharata!
13:27. He sees (truly), who sees
the supreme lord abiding alike in all entities, and not destroyed
though they are destroyed.
13:28. For he who sees the lord
abiding everywhere alike, does not destroy himself by himself, and
then reaches the highest goal.
13:29. He sees (truly), who sees
(all) actions (to be) in every way done by nature alone, and
likewise the self (to be) not the doer.
13:30. When a man sees all the
variety of entities as existing in one, and (all as) emanating
from that, then he becomes (one with) the Brahman.
13:31. This inexhaustible supreme
self, being without beginning and without qualities, does not act,
and is not tainted, O son of Kunti! though stationed in the body.
13:32. As by (reason of its)
subtlety the all-pervading space is not tainted, so the self
stationed in every body is not tainted.
13:33. As the sun singly lights up
all this world, so the Kshetragna, O descendant of Bharata! lights
up the whole Kshetra. Those who, with the eye of knowledge, thus
understand the difference between Kshetra and Kshetragna, and the
destruction of the nature of all entities, go to the supreme.
~ Chapter 14 ~
The Deity said:
14:1. Again I will declare (to
you) the highest knowledge, the best of (all sorts of) knowledge,
having learnt which, all sages have reached perfection beyond (the
bonds of) this (body).
14:2. Those who, resorting to this
knowledge, reach assimilation with my essence, are not born at the
creation, and are not afflicted at the destruction (of the
14:3. The great Brahman is a womb
for me, in which I cast the seed. From that, O descendant of
Bharata! is the birth of all things.
14:4. Of the bodies, O son of
Kunti! which are born from all wombs, the (main) womb is the great
Brahman, and I (am) the father, the giver of the seed.
14:5. Goodness, passion, darkness,
these qualities born from nature, O you of mighty arms! bind down
the inexhaustible soul in the body.
14:6. Of these, goodness, which,
in consequence of being untainted, is enlightening and free from
(all) misery, binds the soul, O sinless one! with the bond of
pleasure and the bond of knowledge.
14:7. Know that passion consists
in being enamoured, and is produced from craving and attachment.
That, O son of Kunti! binds down the embodied (self) with the bond
14:8. Darkness (you must) know to
be born of ignorance, it deludes all embodied (selfs). And that, O
descendant of Bharata! binds down (the self) with heedlessness,
indolence, and sleep.
14:9. Goodness unites (the self)
with pleasure; passion, O descendant of Bharata! with action; and
darkness with heedlessness, after shrouding up knowledge.
14:10. Passion and darkness being
repressed, goodness stands, O descendant of Bharata! Passion and
goodness (being repressed), darkness; and likewise darkness and
goodness (being repressed), passion.
14:11. When in this body at all
portals light (that is to say) knowledge prevails, then should one
know goodness to be developed.
14:12. Avarice, activity,
performance of actions, want of tranquillity, desire, these are
produced, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! when passion is
14:13. Want of light, want of
activity heedlessness, and delusion, these are produced, O
descendant of Kuru! when darkness is developed.
14:14. When an embodied (self)
encounters death, while goodness is developed, then he reaches the
untainted worlds of those who know the highest.
14:15. Encountering death during
(the prevalence of) passion, he is born among those attached to
action. Likewise, dying during (the prevalence of) darkness, he is
born in the wombs of the ignorant.
14:16. The fruit of meritorious
action is said to be good, untainted; while the fruit of passion
is misery; and the fruit of darkness ignorance.
14:17. From goodness is produced
knowledge, from passion avarice, and from darkness heedlessness
and delusion and ignorance also.
14:18. Those who adhere to (the
ways of) goodness go up; the passionate remain in the middle;
while those of the qualities of darkness, adhering to the ways of
the lowest quality, go down.
14:19. When a right-seeing person
sees none but the qualities (to be) the doers (of all action), and
knows what is above the qualities, he enters into my essence.
14:20. The embodied (self), who
transcends these three qualities, from which bodies are produced,
attains immortality, being freed from birth and death and old age
14:21. What are the
characteristics, O lord! of one who has transcended these three
qualities? What is his conduct, and how does he transcend these
The Deity said:
14:22. He is said to have
transcended the qualities, O son of Pandu! who is not averse to
light and activity and delusion (when they) prevail, and who does
not desire (them when they) cease;
14:23. who sitting like one
unconcerned is never perturbed by the qualities; who remains
steady and moves not, (thinking) merely that the qualities exist;
who is self-contained;
14:24. to whom pain and pleasure
are alike; to whom a sod and a stone and gold are alike; to whom
what is agreeable and what is disagreeable are alike; who has
14:25. to whom censure and praise
of himself are alike; who is alike in honour and dishonour; who is
alike towards the sides of friends and foes; and who abandons all
14:26. And he who worships me with
an unswerving devotion, transcends these qualities, and becomes
fit for (entrance into) the essence of the Brahman.
14:27. For I am the embodiment of
the Brahman, of indefeasible immortality, of eternal piety, and of
~ Chapter 15 ~
The Deity said:
15:1. They say the inexhaustible
Asvattha has (its) roots above, (its) branches below; the Khandas
are its leaves. He who knows it knows the Vedas.
15:2. Upwards and downwards extend
its branches, which are enlarged by the qualities, and the sprouts
of which are sensuous objects. And downwards to this human world
are continued its roots which lead on to action.
15:3. Its form is not thus known
here, nor (its) end, nor beginning, nor support. But having with
the firm weapon of unconcern, cut this Asvattha, whose roots are
15:4. then should one seek for
that seat from which those that go there never return, (thinking)
that one rests on that same primal being, from whom the ancient
course (of worldly life) emanated.
15:5. Those who are free from
pride and delusion, who have overcome the evils of attachment, who
are constant in (contemplating) the relation of the supreme and
individual self, from whom desire has departed, who are free from
the pairs (of opposites) called pleasure and pain, go undeluded to
that imperishable seal.
15:6. The sun does not light it,
nor the moon, nor fire. That is my highest abode, going to which
15:7. An eternal portion of me it
is, which, becoming an individual soul in the mortal world, draws
(to itself) the senses with the mind as the sixth.
15:8. Whenever the ruler (of the
bodily frame) obtains or quits a body, he goes taking these (with
him) as the wind (takes) perfumes from (their) seats.
15:9. And presiding over the
senses of hearing and seeing and touch, and taste, and smell, and
the mind, he enjoys sensuous objects.
15:10. Those who are deluded do
not see (him) remaining in or quitting (a body), enjoying or
joined to the qualities; they see, who have eyes of knowledge.
15:11. Devotees making efforts
perceive him abiding within their selfs. But those whose selfs
have not been refined, and who have no discernment, do not
perceive him even (after) making efforts.
15:12. Know that glory (to be)
mine which, dwelling in the sun, lights up the whole world, or in
the moon or fire.
15:13. Entering the earth, I by my
power support all things, and becoming the juicy moon, I nourish
15:14. I becoming the fire, and
dwelling in the bodies of (all) creatures, and united with the
upward and downward life-breaths, cause digestion of the fourfold
15:15. And I am placed in the
heart of all; from me (come) memory, knowledge, and their removal;
I alone am to be learnt from all the Vedas; I am the author of the
Vedantas; and I alone know the Vedas.
15:16. There are these two beings
in the world, the destructible and the indestructible. The
destructible (includes) all things. The unconcerned one is (what
is) called the indestructible.
15:17. But the being supreme is
yet another, called the highest self, who as the inexhaustible
lord, pervading the three worlds, supports (them).
15:18. And since I transcend the
destructible, and since I am higher also than the indestructible,
therefore am I celebrated in the world and in the Vedas as the
best of beings.
15:19. He who, undeluded, thus
knows me the best of beings, worships me every way, O descendant
of Bharata! knowing everything.
15:20. Thus, O sinless one! have I
proclaimed this most mysterious science. He who knows this, has
done all he need do, and he becomes possessed of discernment.
~ Chapter 16 ~
16:1. Freedom from fear, purity of
heart, perseverance in (pursuit of) knowledge and abstraction of
mind, gifts, self-restraint, and sacrifice, study of the Vedas,
16:2. harmlessness, truth, freedom
from anger, renunciation, tranquillity, freedom from the habit of
backbiting, compassion for (all) beings, freedom from avarice,
gentleness, modesty, absence of vain activity,
forgiveness, courage, purity, freedom from a desire to injure
others, absence of vanity, (these), O descendant of Bharata! are
his who is born to godlike endowments.
16:4. Ostentatiousness, pride,
vanity, anger, and also harshness and ignorance (are) his, O son
of Pritha! who is born to demoniac endowments.
16:5. Godlike endowments are
deemed to be (means) for final emancipation, demoniac for bondage.
Grieve not, O descendant of Bharata! you are born to god-like
16:6. (There are) two classes of
created beings in this world, the godlike and the demoniac; the
godlike (class) has been described at length; now hear from me, O
son of Pritha! about the demoniac.
16:7. Demoniac persons know not
action or inaction, neither purity nor yet (correct) conduct nor
veracity are in them.
16:8. They say the universe is
devoid of truth, devoid of fixed principle, and devoid of a ruler,
produced by union (of male and female) caused by lust, and nothing
16:9. Holding this view, (these)
enemies of the world, of ruined; selfs, of little knowledge, and
of ferocious actions, are born for the destruction (of the world).
16:10. Entertaining insatiable
desire, full of vanity, ostentatiousness, and frenzy, they adopt
false notions through delusion, and engage in unholy observances.
16:11. Indulging in boundless
thoughts ending with death, given up to the enjoyment of objects
of desire, being resolved that that is all,
16:12. bound down by nets of hopes
in hundreds, given up to anger and desire, they wish to obtain
heaps of wealth unfairly for enjoying objects of desire.
16:13. `This have I obtained
to-day; this wish I will obtain; this wealth is mine; and this
also shall be mine;
16:14. this foe I have killed;
others too I will destroy; I am lord, I am the enjoyer, I am
perfect, strong, happy;
16:15. I have wealth; I am of
noble birth; who else is like me? I will sacrifice; I will make
gifts; I will rejoice.' Thus deluded by ignorance,
16:16. tossed about by numerous
thoughts, surrounded by the net of delusion, and attached to the
enjoyment of objects of desire, they fall down into impure hell.
16:17. Honoured (only) by
themselves, void of humility, and full of the pride and frenzy of
wealth, these calumniators; (of the virtuous) perform sacrifices,
which are sacrifices only in name, with ostentatiousness and
against prescribed rules;
16:18. indulging (their) vanity,
brute force, arrogance, lust, and anger; and hating me in their
own bodies and in those of others.
16:19. These enemies, ferocious,
meanest of men, and unholy, I continually hurl down to these
worlds, only into demoniac wombs.
16:20. Coming into demoniac wombs,
deluded in every birth, they go down to the vilest state, O son of
Kunti! without ever coming to me.
16:21. Threefold is this way to
hell, -- ruinous to the self, -- lust, anger, and likewise
avarice; therefore one should abandon this triad.
16:22. Released from these three
ways to darkness, O son of Kunti! a man works out his own
salvation, and then proceeds to the highest goal.
16:23. He who abandoning scripture
ordinances, acts under the impulse of desire, does not attain
perfection, nor happiness, nor the highest goal.
16:24. Therefore in discriminating
between what should be done and what should not be done, your
authority (must be) scripture. And knowing what is declared by the
ordinances of scripture, you should perform action in this world.
~ Chapter 17 ~
17:1. What is the state of those,
O Krishna! who worship with faith, (but) abandoning scripture
ordinances -- goodness, passion, or darkness?
The Deity said:
17:2. Faith is of three kinds in
embodied (beings), it is produced from dispositions. It is of the
quality of goodness, of the quality of passion, and of the quality
of darkness. Hear about it.
17:3. The faith of all, O
descendant of Bharata! is conformable to the heart. A being here
is full of faith, and whatever is a man's faith, that is a man
17:4. Those of the quality of
goodness worship the gods; those of the quality of passion the
Yakshas and Rakshases; and the others, the people of the quality
of darkness, worship departed (spirits) and the multitudes of
17:5. Know those to-be of demoniac
convictions, who practise fierce penance not ordained by
scripture; who are full of ostentatiousness and egoism, and of
desire, attachment, and stubbornness; who are without discernment;
17:6. and who torment the groups
of organs in (their) bodies, and me also seated within (those)
17:7. The food also, which is
liked by all, and likewise the sacrifice, the penance, and gifts,
are of three kinds. Listen to the distinctions regarding them as
17:8. The kinds of food which
increase life, energy, strength, health, comfort, and relish,
which are savoury, oleaginous, full of nutrition, and agreeable,
are liked by the good.
17:9. The kinds of food which are
bitter, acid, saltish, too hot, sharp, rough, and burning, and
which cause pain, grief, and disease, are desired by the
17:10. And the food which is cold,
tasteless, stinking, stale, impure, and even leavings, are liked
by the dark.
17:11. That sacrifice is good
which, being prescribed in (scripture) ordinances, is performed by
persons not wishing for the fruit (of it), and after determining
(in their) mind that the sacrifice must needs be performed.
17:12. But when a sacrifice is
performed, O highest of the descendants of Bharata! with an
expectation of fruit (from it), and for the purpose of
ostentation, know that sacrifice (to be) passionate.
17:13. They call that sacrifice
dark, which is against the ordinances (of scripture), in which no
food is dealt out (to Brahmanas, &c.), which is devoid of
Mantras, devoid of Dakshina presents, and which is without faith.
17:14. Paying reverence to gods,
Brahmanas, preceptors, and men of knowledge; purity,
straightforwardness, life as Brahmakarin, and harmlessness, (this)
is called the penance bodily.
17:15. The speech which causes no
sorrow, which is true, agreeable, and beneficial, and the study of
the Vedas, (this) is called the penance vocal.
17:16. Calmness of mind, mildness,
taciturnity, self-restraint, and purity of heart, this is called
the penance mental.
17:17. This threefold penance,
practised with perfect faith, by men who do not wish for the
fruit, and who are possessed of devotion, is called good.
17:18. The penance which is done
for respect, honour, and reverence, and with ostentatiousness, and
which is uncertain and transient, is here called passionate.
17:19. And that penance is
described as dark, which is performed under a misguided
conviction, with pain to oneself, or for the destruction of
17:20. That gift is said (to be)
good, which is given, because it ought to be given, to one who
(can) do no service (in return), at a (proper) place and time, and
to a (proper) person.
17:21. But that gift which is
given with much difficulty, for a return of services, or even with
an expectation of fruit, is said to be passionate.
17:22. And that gift is described
as dark, which is given to unfit persons, at an unfit place and
time, without respect, and with contempt.
17:23. Om, Tad, and Sat, this is
said (to be) the threefold designation of the Brahman. By that,
the Brahmanas and the Vedas and sacrifices were created in olden
17:24. Hence, the performance by
those who study the Brahman, of sacrifices, gifts, and penances,
prescribed by the ordinances (of scripture, always commence after
17:25. Those who desire final
emancipation perform the various acts of sacrifice and penance,
and the various acts of gift, without expectation of fruit, after
17:26. `Sat' is employed to
express existence and goodness; and likewise, O son of Pritha! the
word `Sat' is used to express an auspicious act.
17:27. Constancy in (making)
sacrifices, penances, and gifts, is called `Sat'; and (all)
action, too, of which that is the object, is also called `Sat.'
17:28. Whatever oblation is
offered, whatever is given, whatever penance is performed, and
whatever is done, without faith, that, O son of Pritha! is called
`Asat,' and that is nought, both after death and here.
~ Chapter 18 ~
18:1. O you of mighty arms! O
Hrishikesa! O destroyer of Kesin! I wish to know the truth about
renunciation and abandonment distinctly.
The Deity said:
18:2. By renunciation the sages
understand the rejection of actions done with desires. The wise
call the abandonment of the fruit of all actions (by the name)
18:3. Some wise men say, that
action should be abandoned as being full of evil; and others, that
the actions of sacrifice, gift, and penance should not be
18:4. As to that abandonment, O
best of the descendants of Bharata! listen to my decision; for
abandonment, O bravest of men! is described (to be) threefold.
18:5. The actions of sacrifice,
gift, and penance should not be abandoned; they must needs be
performed; for sacrifices, gifts, and penances are means of
sanctification to the wise.
18:6. But even these actions, O
son of Pritha! should be performed, abandoning attachment and
fruit; such is my excellent and decided opinion.
18:7. The renunciation of
prescribed action is not proper. Its abandonment through delusion
I is described as of the quality of darkness.
18:8. When a man abandons action,
merely as being troublesome, through fear of bodily affliction, he
does not obtain the fruit of abandonment by making (such)
18:9. When prescribed action is
performed, O Arguna! abandoning attachment and fruit also, merely
because it ought to be performed, that is deemed (to be) a good
18:10. He who is possessed of
abandonment, being full of goodness, and talented, and having his
doubts destroyed, is not averse from unpleasant actions, is not
attached to pleasant (ones).
18:11. Since no embodied (being)
can abandon actions without exception, he is said to be possessed
of abandonment, who abandons the fruit of action.
18:12. The threefold fruit of
action, agreeable, disagreeable, and mixed, accrues after death to
those who are not possessed of abandonment, but never to
18:13. Learn from me, O you of
mighty arms! these five causes of the completion of all actions,
declared in the Sankhya system.
18:14. The substratum, the agent
likewise, the various sorts of organs, and the various and
distinct movements, and with these the deities, too, as the fifth.
18:15. Whatever action, just or
otherwise, a man performs with his body, speech, and mind, these
five are its causes.
18:16. That being so, the
undiscerning man, who being of an unrefined understanding, sees
the agent in the immaculate self, sees not (rightly).
18:17. He who has no feeling of
egoism, and whose mind is not tainted, even though he kills (all)
these people, kills not, is not fettered (by the action).
18:18. Knowledge, the object of
knowledge, the knower -- threefold is the prompting to action. The
instrument, the action, the agent, thus in brief is action
18:19. Knowledge and action and
agent are declared in the enumeration of qualities (to be) of
three classes only, according to the difference of qualities. Hear
about these also as they really are.
18:20. Know that knowledge to be
good, by which (a man) sees one entity, inexhaustible, and not
different in all things (apparently) different (from one another).
18:21. Know that knowledge to be
passionate, which is (based) on distinctions (between different
entities), which sees in all things various entities of different
18:22. And that is described as
dark, which clings to one created (thing) only as everything,
which is devoid of reason, devoid of real principle, and
18:23. That action is called good,
which is prescribed, which is devoid of attachment, which is not
done from (motives of) affection or aversion, (and which is done)
by one not wishing for the fruit.
18:24. That is described as
passionate, which (occasions) much trouble, is performed by one
who wishes for objects of desire, or one who is full of egotism.
18:25. The action is called dark,
which is commenced through delusion, without regard to
consequences, loss, injury, or strength.
18:26. That agent is called good,
who has cast off attachment, who is free from egotistic talk, who
is possessed of courage and energy, and unaffected by success or
18:27. That agent is called
passionate, who is full of affections, who wishes for the fruit of
actions, who is covetous, cruel, and impure, and feels joy and
18:28. That agent is called dark,
who is without application, void of discernment, headstrong,
crafty, malicious, lazy, melancholy, and slow.
18:29. Now hear, O Dhanangaya! the
threefold division of intelligence and courage, according to
qualities, which I am about to declare exhaustively and
18:30. That intelligence, O son of
Pritha! is good which understands action and inaction, what ought
to be done and what ought not to be done, danger and the absence
of danger, emancipation and bondage.
18:31. That intelligence, O son of
Pritha! is passionate, by which one imperfectly understands piety
and impiety, what ought to be done and also what ought not to be
18:32. That intelligence, O son of
Pritha! is dark, which shrouded by darkness, understands impiety
(to be) piety, and all things incorrectly.
18:33. That courage, O son of
Pritha! is good courage, which is unswerving, and by which one
controls the operations of the mind, breath, and senses, through
18:34. But, O Arguna! that courage
is passionate, by which one adheres to piety, lust, and wealth,
and through attachment wishes, O son of Pritha! for the fruit.
18:35. That courage is dark, O son
of Pritha! by which an undiscerning man does not give up sleep,
fear, sorrow, despondency, and folly.
18:36. Now, O chief of the
descendants of Bharata! hear from me about the three sorts of
18:37. That happiness is called
good, in which one is pleased after repetition (of enjoyment), and
reaches the close of all misery, which is like poison first and
comparable to nectar in the long run, and which is produced from a
clear knowledge of the self.
18:38. That happiness is called
passionate, which (flows) from contact between the senses and
their objects, and which is at first comparable to nectar and in
the long run like poison.
18:39. That happiness is described
as dark, which arises from sleep, laziness, heedlessness, which
deludes the self, both at first and in its consequences.
18:40. There is no entity either
on earth or in heaven among the gods, which is free from these
three qualities born of nature.
18:41. The duties of Brahmanas,
Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, and of Sudras, too, O terror of your
foes! are distinguished according to the qualities born of nature.
18:42. Tranquillity, restraint of
the senses, penance, purity, forgiveness, straightforwardness,
also knowledge, experience, and belief (in a future world), this
is the natural duty of Brahmanas.
18:43. Valour, glory, courage,
dexterity, not slinking away from battle, gifts, exercise of
lordly power, this is the natural duty of Kshatriyas.
18:44. Agriculture, tending
cattle, trade, (this) is the natural duty of Vaisyas. And the
natural duty of Sudras, too, consists in service.
18:45. (Every) man intent on his
own respective duties obtains perfection. Listen, now, how one
intent on one's own duty obtains perfection.
18:46. Worshipping, by (the
performance of) his own duty, him from whom all things proceed,
and by whom all this is permeated, a man obtains perfection.
18:47. One's duty, though
defective, is better than another's duty well performed.
18:48. Performing the duty
prescribed by nature, one does not incur sin. O son of Kunti! one
should not abandon a natural duty though tainted with evil; for
all actions are enveloped by evil, as fire by smoke.
18:49. One who is self-restrained,
whose understanding is unattached everywhere, from whom affections
have departed, obtains the supreme perfection of freedom from
action by renunciation.
18:50. Learn from me, only in
brief, O son of Kunti! how one who has obtained perfection attains
the Brahman, which is the highest culmination of knowledge.
18:51. A man possessed of a pure
understanding, controlling his self by courage, discarding sound
and other objects of sense, casting off affection and aversion;
18:52. who frequents clean places,
who eats little, whose speech, body, and mind are restrained, who
is always intent on meditation and mental abstraction, and has
recourse to unconcern,
18:53. who abandoning egoism,
stubbornness, arrogance, desire, anger, and (all) belongings, has
no (thought that this or that is) mine, and who is tranquil,
becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman.
18:54. Thus reaching the Brahman,
and with a tranquil self, he grieves not, wishes not; but being
alike to all beings, obtains the highest devotion to me.
18:55. By (that) devotion he truly
understands who I am and how great. And then understanding me
truly, he forthwith enters into my (essence).
18:56. Even performing all
actions, always depending on me, he, through my favour, obtains
the imperishable and eternal seat.
18:57. Dedicating in thought all
actions to me, be constantly given up to me, (placing) your
thoughts on me, through recourse to mental abstraction.
18:58. (Placing) your thoughts on
me, you will cross over all difficulties by my favour. But if you
will not listen through egotism, you will be ruined.
18:59. If entertaining egotism,
you think that you may not fight, vain, indeed, is that resolution
18:60. Nature will constrain you.
That, O son of Kunti! which through delusion you do not wish to
do, you will do involuntarily, tied down by your own duty, flowing
from your nature.
18:61. The lord, O Arguna! is
seated in the region of the heart of all beings, turning round all
beings (as though) mounted on a machine, by his delusion.
18:62. With him, O descendant of
Bharata! seek shelter in every way; by his favour you will obtain
the highest tranquillity, the eternal seat.
18:63. Thus have I declared to you
the knowledge more mysterious than any mystery. Ponder over it
thoroughly, and then act as you like.
18:64. Once more, listen to my
excellent words -- most mysterious of all. Strongly I like you,
therefore I will declare what ts for your welfare.
18:65. On me (place) your mind,
become my devotee, sacrifice to me, reverence me, and you will
certainly come to me. I declare to you truly, you are dear to me.
18:66. Forsaking all duties, come
to me as (your) sole refuge. I will release you from all sins. Be
18:67. This you should never
declare to one who performs no penance, who is not a devotee, nor
to one who does not wait on (some preceptor), nor yet to one who
18:68. He who, with the highest
devotion to me, will proclaim this supreme mystery among my
devotees, will come to me, freed from (all) doubts.
18:69. No one amongst men is
superior to him in doing what is dear to me. And there will never
be another on earth dearer to me than he.
18:70. And he who will study this
holy dialogue of ours, will, such is my opinion, have offered to
me the sacrifice of knowledge.
18:71. And the man, also, who with
faith and without carping will listen (to this), will be freed
(from sin), and attain to the holy regions of those who perform
18:72. Have you listened to this,
O son of Pritha! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? Has
your delusion (caused) by ignorance been destroyed, O Dhanangaya?
18:73. Destroyed is my delusion;
by your favour, O undegraded one! I (now) recollect myself I stand
freed from doubts. I will do your bidding.
18:74. Thus did I hear this
dialogue between Vasudeva and the high-minded son of Pritha, (a
dialogue) wonderful and causing the hair to stand on end.
18:75. By the favour of Vyasa, I
heard this highest mystery, (this) devotion, from Krishna himself,
the lord of the possessors of mystic power, who proclaimed it in
18:76. O king! remembering and
(again) remembering this wonderful and holy dialogue of Kesava and
Arguna, I rejoice over and over again.
18:77. And remembering and (again)
remembering that excessively wonderful form of Hari also, great is
my amazement, O king! and I rejoice over and over again.
18:78. Wherever (is) Krishna, the lord of the possessors of
mystic power, wherever (is) the (great) archer, the son of Pritha,
there in my opinion (are) fortune, victory, prosperity, and